From Bureaucracy to Public Management

The Administrative Culture of the Government of Canada

Table of contents

List of Tables


1. Introduction: Administrative Culture and Values
1. Culture as Manifest in Organizations
Culture in the Anthropological Sense
Organizational Culture and Corporate Culture
Administrative Culture
2. The Place of Values
The Place of Values in Public Administration
3. How to Study Values in Public Administration
Two Typologies of Values in Public Administration
The Bases for determining Fundamental Values: the Deontological Approach and the Teleological Approach
The Context of Ethical Behavior
4. Conclusion
2. The Sources of Administrative Culture in Canada
1. The Physical Environment
2. Social Values
3. Economic Culture
4. Political Culture
5. Internal Causes: Workplace
Sources of Administrative Influence
6. Foreign Sources of Influence
7. Conclusion
3. The Foundations of Canada's Administrative Culture
1. Constitutional Conventions and Canadian Public Administration
The Rule of Law
Responsible Government and Ministerial Responsibility
2. Classic Regime Values of the Canadian Administration
Concept of Political Neutrality
Civil Service Anonymity and Secrecy
Public Service Accountability
Employees' Associations and Collective Bargaining
3. Guardian Institutions
4. Conclusion
4. The Administrative State in Canada: The Whitehall Model Under Stress
1. The Advent of the Administrative State
2. The Administrative State in Canada
3. Administrative Discretion, the Rule of Law, and Administrative Accountability
Judicial Control of Administrative Discretion
Legislative Surveillance of Administrative Discretion
Political Accountability
Problems of Deficits and Cost Control
4. Politicization of the Administration: From Above, From Below, and From Without
Politicization from Above
Politicization from Below: Collective Bargaining
Politicization from Without: Representative Bureaucracy
5. Canadian Administrative Culture as Revealed by the Growth of and Response to the Administrative State
Elite Values
Other Employees
6. Conclusion
5. The New Public Management Movement Comes to Canada
1. Genesis and Lineage of the New Public Management
2. New Public Management Movement Comes to Canada
The Glassco Report
Programme Evaluation and Comprehensive Auditing
Creation of a Management Culture: The Management Category and COSO
Operational Decentralization: IMAA and SOA's
Canadian Centre for Management Development
3. PS 2000: Apotheosis of the Canadian Public Management Movement
4. Restructuring and Programme Review
5. Canadian Administrative Culture in the Wake of New Public Management Reforms
6. Canadian Administrative Culture Between Past and Present
1. The Findings of Our Study
2. A Deontological Appraisal of the New Public Management
3. A Teleological Approach: Between the Desirable and the Desired
Need for Budget Restraint
Reducing Bureaucracy
Accent on Results
Service to the Public
Decentralization and Devolution
Contracting Out
Performance Pay
4. Lessons Drawn from This Study
5. Conclusion


This book is about the systems of values, traditions, perceptions, and meanings existing in the Canadian federal public service since the First World War. Surveying that history, it considers the conflict of values arising from the attempt to add New Public Management values to older bureaucratic ones. These tensions are looked at from an ethical viewpoint, but also from that of the relationship between ends and means. Are the means proposed really likely to meet the ends proclaimed? Attempts to change a culture from the top down run against daily realities; the interests, training, and experience of all employees, elites, and others. Authors Dwivedi and Gow intend this overview to enable readers to appreciate the complex world of Canada’s public servants.

A joint publication with The Institute of Public Administration of Canada.